- External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) uses radiation to kill cancer cells and requires a full bladder to help with positioning the body to target the beam at the prostate.
- Brachytherapy is the implantation of radioactive "seeds." These contain long-acting radiation that kills cancer cells in the prostate gland.
- Hormone therapy uses synthetic hormones that are either injected or taken in pill form to prevent prostate cancer growth by blocking testosterone from the cancer cells.
- Prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate gland and lymph nodes in the groin. Side effects include incontinence and impotence.
- Cryotherapy uses liquid nitrogen to freeze cancerous tumors of the prostate, but may cause damage to nearby areas such as the colon and bladder.
- Chemotherapy is the use of drugs that kill rapidly growing cells, including healthy and cancerous cells. Due to side effects, chemotherapy is used on men whose prostate cancer has metastasized.
- According to the Mayo Clinic, gene therapy is a potential treatment for prostate cancer and is in experimental use at a few medical centers in the United States.